Monday, May 25, 2020

The Working Class Essay - 1578 Words

The Industrial Revolution consisted of scientific innovations, a vast increase in industrial production, and a rapid growth of urban populations which consequently shaped a new social structure in the European continent. Initially in the late eighteenth century, the new industrialization period produced dominant bourgeoisie employers and a united men, women, and children workers. The continued increase of factories coupled with a need for employees made the Proletariats within a short period of time a large, underprivileged, hungry, and desperate for money. Meanwhile, their bourgeoisie employers grew authoritative and wealthy as production and profit soared. Despite the common ties between proletariat workers upon the outbreak of the†¦show more content†¦Thus, it was believed that conflicting classes existed because individuals developed an appropriate sense of class-consciousness (Buckler 740). This consciousness is very obvious when looking at the mindset of the middle-cla ss owners. They were primarily focused on production and gave little thought to the environment of their workers. As a result, most early factories contained extremely unpleasant work conditions. Mills and factories were dangerously loud, and they were sweltering hot in the summer while poorly heated in the winter. Work days consisted of endlessly long hours and holidays were rarely granted. Furthermore, no laws or unions stood protecting the early urban proletariat workers. Despite these horrid conditions, the proletariat workers were desperate for jobs and were entirely dependant on their employers. Also, because of class-consciousness, they came to accept their positions in society as grueling factory workers. On top of terrible work conditions, the Proletariats’ living conditions were less than satisfactory due to the rapid population increase in urban cities. Until the Industrial Revolution, most of the continent’s population was rural. However, by mid-nineteenth century, half of all Europeans lived in cities and worked in the new industrial factories instead of farms. This transformation of Europe from a rural to urbanized society depressed the living standards of workers to horrendous levels. In doing so, however, itShow MoreRelatedThe American Working Class1880 Words   |  8 Pages1945 was a pivotal year for the American working class. The middle class rose to power as the new standard for the average American worker. Meanwhile the government debated over how much involvement they should have in the economy and the in the lives of Americans. As in, is it â€Å"our job† to give citizens cradle to grave benefits like other European countries? This paper will discuss what has happened to the American working class since 1945 and why. It will also touch on postwar developments andRead MoreWorking-Class Representation2108 Words   |  9 Pageswhich is literature, is not determined by â€Å"the consciousness of men†, but by â⠂¬Å"the social existence† (266). Concerning working-class literature, it follows this rule as well—â€Å"the whole class produces and shapes these out of its material foundation and out of the corresponding social conditions† (267). Thus, working-class literature is created upon the contemporary status quo of the class which greatly influences its theme and content. Yet, according to Marxist theory, there is an interaction betweenRead MoreThe Dispossessed: What Is a Working Class?1163 Words   |  5 Pageshear â€Å"working-class?† One perhaps might think of a specific race, gender, sexuality or a specific type of lifestyle. In William Deresiewicz’s â€Å"The Dispossessed† aims to raise awareness to his audience that people of the working class still exist and should be recognized. His targeted audience being the educated, younger generations of middle and upper class. Through the use of logic and building his credibility, Deresiewicz makes a convincing argument about the way the working class has beenRead MorePoverty Inequality And The Working Class976 Words   |  4 Pagesworldwide are â€Å"multidimensionally poor† (Hick, 2014, p. 125). While addressing poverty, it is also essential for one to examine the inequality that exists within society. Poverty, inequality, the working poor, and capitalism are all concepts that interrelate and affect one another. Poverty and the working class are results of the inequality that is produced by a capitalist society. Nevertheless, the connection of poverty and inequality is still largely debated. Economists often argue the relevance ofRead MoreRepresentation Of The Working Class2386 Words   |  10 Pagesrepresentation of the working class in Italian cinema from the silent era up to the neorealist period, using the movies presented in class or mentioned in the assigned readings From the silent era until the neorealist period, the depiction of the working-class in Italian cinema has provided an unparalleled insight into the shifting socio-political landscape of pre and post-war Italy. From Pastrone’s depiction of Maciste, the immortal strongman, born to use his ‘working class brawn against evil’ (FlanaganRead MoreEssay on Working Class and Money1315 Words   |  6 Pagesproduct. For social mobility its is keeping it the way it has been the lower class aren’t able to move up when these prices are so high. 3. How many railroad workers were killed or injured in 1889? Why did so many workers die on the job? In 1889 the number of workers killed on the job was 22,000. These people were dieing on the job because of their shifts for their jobs could last up to 12 hours. Also the people working these 12 hour shifts every day were only 16 years old. 4. How did J.P.Read MoreThe Explanations Of Working Class Underachievement Essay1979 Words   |  8 Pagesexplanations of working class underachievement. This will be through examining the home and school factors that affect these individuals and then reaching a conclusion that highlights the most influential factors while finding connections between them. A person is considered working class if they are typically employed in manual or industrial work in order to achieve a wage. Home factors play a major role in the underachievement of the working class. The April 2013 Great British class survey foundRead MoreGeorge Orwell Working Class Analysis1617 Words   |  7 PagesBattle of the Working Class† The socialist working class has been the core structure that got Britain through every economic and social challenge that they were involved in. During George Orwell’s time in Britain, he wrote that the â€Å"overwhelming strength of patriotism, national loyalty† the English had was more powerful even if it was compared to any religion or political theory and more likely seen in class divided areas like cheap public schools with more power than the hate for class separationRead MoreDifference Between Capitalist And The Working Class1643 Words   |  7 Pageswhether you’re the capitalist or a part of the working class. This drastically influences the likability of success and determines whether you’ll be part of the working class or upper class. In â€Å"Classical Sociological Theory† we see the differences between the capitalist and the working class, and the impact that they have on labor to ultimately become successful, or in other words â€Å" happy† with the living and working conditions presented to the working class. First, will analyze what influences the priceRead MoreThe Effect Of The Industrial Revolution On The Working Class987 Words   |  4 Pagesthe wealthiest country in the world. The revolution also spread to other European countries and the New World. Both Germany and United States will surpass Britain in the next fifty years. What was the effect of The Industrial Revolution on the working class? Spielvogels ´ text â€Å"The Foundry and Engineering Works of the Royal Overseas Trading Company Factory Rule† is from a factory in Berlin, 1844. It shows a set of rules that are to be strictly followed for fundamental success. The set of rules tells

Friday, May 15, 2020

Martin Luther King’s (Mlk) “Letter from Birmingham Jail”...

Kyle McCrite Ms. Vaughn English 102-01 14 September 2009 Someone Else’s Shoes Martin Luther King’s (MLK) â€Å"Letter from Birmingham Jail,† was written in 1963 as a response to the Eight Alabama Clergymen’s public statement against King’s actions in April of that year. Martin Luther King Jr. was an activist for desegregation of the south in the early 1960s and overcame much adversity to attain incredible gains on the segregation issue in the United States. King uses effective persuasive appeals of logical evidence, emotional appeal, and author credibility to win over his audience in â€Å"The Letter from Birmingham Jail.† MLK’s writing shows the effects of segregation in Birmingham with clear direct language and heart wrenching examples.†¦show more content†¦King brings in the question, what is a just and unjust law? A just law is one that promotes good morals and is followed by both the majority as well as the minority of society. Martin Luther King Jr. defines an unjust law as: A human law that is not rooted in eternal law and natural law†¦ Any law that degrades human personality is unjust. All segregation statutes are unjust because segregation distorts the soul and damages the personality (658). MLK even covers the fact that some laws are just on the surface, but unjust in how they are enforced. The example of his imprisonment proves this statement. He was arrested for parading without a permit, but this is an unjust law because it promotes segregation and denies basic constitutional rights to freedom of speech and assembly (659). He uses these soulful explanations of just and unjust laws trying to appeal to his readers’ emotions, though the notion of just and unjust laws may seem logical to them as well. Just and unjust laws may be considered logical evidence as well as emotional, but Martin Luther King Jr. uses a few much better logical examples to convince the audience to see his point of view. His logical examples of moral wrongdoings include strong emotion and cold harsh facts. Birmingham’s history of cruel segregation is well known and possibly the most segregated city in the United States. There were more â€Å"unsolved bombings of Negro homes and churches inShow MoreRelatedMlk Rhetorical Analysis Essay example1178 Words   |  5 PagesRhetorical Analysis on Martin Luther King Junior’s Letter from Birmingham Jail In Martin Luther King Junior’s Letter from Birmingham Jail, MLK uses ethos, logos, and pathos powerfully and effectively to present his argument that the discrimination of African Americans all over the country is unbearable and should be outlawed forever. King wrote the letter in Birmingham, Alabama after a peaceful protest against segregation which was King’s way of reinforcing his belief that without forceful, directRead MoreLetter From A Birmingham Jail By Martin Luther King Jr.920 Words   |  4 PagesIn his â€Å"Letter from a Birmingham Jail,† Martin Luther King Jr. makes appeals to ethos, logos, and pathos to convince the clergymen that colored people have been waiting for too long for political, economic, and social justice and freedom. He argues that it’s unfair to promise someone, or a group, for a change and not fulfill that promise. Along with demonetizing and/or belittling a person to the point where they don’t feel as important or a s worth as they should; making them feel hatred and angerRead MoreNonviolent Protests: An argumentative essay1411 Words   |  6 Pages From the Boston Tea Party of 1773, the Civil Rights Movement and the Pro-Life Movement of the 1960s, to the Tea Party Movement and Occupy Wall Street Movement of current times, â€Å"those struggling against unjust laws have engaged in acts of deliberate, open disobedience to government power to uphold higher principles regarding human rights and social justice† (DeForrest, 1998, p. 653) through nonviolent protests. Perhaps the most well-known of the non-violent protests are those associated with theRead MoreThe Civil Rights Movement : Martin Luther King, Jr. And Rosa Parks1546 Words   |  7 Pagesstruggle. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Rosa Parks are often the figures that get the most recognition from this period. However, there are many leaders from the Civil Rights Movement that get overlooked. Even MLK toward the end of his life is glo ssed over for the â€Å"version† that gave the famous â€Å"I have a dream† speech. In truth, there was a fair amount of division between the Black Power Movement and the Integration Movement. Two famous leaders of these movements include Stokely Carmichael from SNCC and

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The U.S./Cuban Showdown and the Cold War - 1556 Words

The 13 days in where the Soviet Union confronted the USA by placing nuclear missles in the island Cuba which is just 90 miles off American mainland is regarded as the closest the two countries came to war in the Cold War period. The short term signifcances were huge, as the world came close to a third world war, but in the long term it actually helped USA and the Soviet Union build a stronger relationship. It led to the Moscow-Washington hotline. However, during the 13 days it proved to many leaders and citizens around the world how fragile a relationship the two countries had, and showed a glimpse into the future that no one wanted to experience. However, what was most significant about the event in the short term was that the outcome seemed to give the USA the upper hand in the cold war. The result of the crises was that the Soviet Union retreated and took all their offensive weapons in Cuba away, whilst the American missiles in Turkey were allowed to stay where they were. Although the Cold War continued for another three decades after, the event led to the decline of Khrushchev, which proves how significant a defeat it was for the Soviets. Opposition had mounted against Khrushchev during and after the crisis and for all his dramatics, bringing the world to the brink of nuclear war for example, he had not delivered any meaningful victories. In the early days of September 1962, American U-2 spy planes detected that the Soviet Union were building surface-to-air launchShow MoreRelatedThe Cold War Summarized Essay1619 Words   |  7 Pagesfollowing the Second World War is known as the Cold War. This period was full of tension and fear that the United States and the USSR would destroy each other and the world with their arsenals of atomic weapons. The seeds of this rivalry were planted nearly a quarter of a century before its actual commencement with the Revolution of 1918 in Russia. The Cold War Rivalry would manifest itself in everything from sports in Olympic competition to science and the Space Race. The Cold War did not only take placeRead MoreCuban Missile Crisis By Bryce Faber999 Words   |  4 PagesCuban Missile Crisis Bryce Faber The Cuban Missile crisis in October of 1962 was the closest the world has ever come to nuclear war. Over thirteen October days, the U.S. and the Soviet Union faced off over Nuclear missile sites found on Cuba 90 miles from the Florida shore. These two world superpowers locked horns in what became known as the Cold War. The Cuban Missile crisis was the climactic showdown in which John F. Kennedy and Nikita Krushchev Made decisions that would affect the fateRead MoreThe Cold War : A Conflict Between Capitalist And Communist Nations Of The World989 Words   |  4 PagesThe Cold War was a conflict between the capitalist and communist nations of the world that lasted from the end of World War 2 into the 1990 s. Problems created by the Cold War still exist today, although many of the combat countries do not directly. Capitalist nations are sometimes referred to as the First world, communist nations are often called the Second world, and the developing nations of Latin America, Af rica, the Middle East, and Asia are often referred to the Third world. The Cold War wasRead MoreEssay on Cold War and Us Diplomacy1701 Words   |  7 PagesThe Cold War and U.S Diplomacy politic 300 07/31/2011 The Cold War Diplomacy When most people think of President Kennedy’s Diplomacy efforts, they will often refer to situations that were resolved using the doctrine of flexible response. This is when the military and White House planners implemented a policy that offered them a range of options to choose from: in dealing with a host of threats. These included: the increased use of conventional forces to small and large nuclear weaponsRead MoreThe United States Air Force1185 Words   |  5 Pagessurrounding these two powers was known as the Cold War, and one incident spiraled the bloodless war to the brink of full scale nuclear war as some thought the strained relationship was at a point of no return. This paper analyzes how the different perspectives through newspapers articles reporting the downing of the U-2 spy plane by the USSR’s domestic surface-to-air missile, and how these fluctuations serve specific geological regions. As the Cold War heightened, more spying by America and SovietRead More Cuban Missile Crisis Essay examples2946 Words   |  12 PagesCuban Missile Crisis The closest the world has come to nuclear war was the Cuban Missile Crisis in October 1962. This was the tense cold war opposition between the United States and the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union had installed nuclear missiles in Cuba, just 90 miles off the coast of the United States The Cold War was the result of a clash between communism and capitalism, two opposing world-views. Another cause of the build up to the Cold War was the intransigent attitude of both sidesRead MoreContainment as U.S. Policy During Cold War Era1889 Words   |  8 PagesContainment as U.S. policy during Cold War Era From after World War II and up until 1991 the foreign policy of the United States was based on Cold War ideology and the policy of containment; to prevent nations from leaning towards Soviet Union-based communism, as first laid out by George Kennan and later used as one of the key principles in the Truman Doctrine (LeCain). As this essay will argue, because of this policy the United States made a commitment to fight communism everywhere in the worldRead MoreContainment As U.S. Policy During Cold War Era Essay1836 Words   |  8 PagesContainment as U.S. policy during Cold War Era From after World War II and up until 1991 the foreign policy of the United States was based on Cold War ideology and the policy of containment; to prevent nations from leaning towards Soviet Union-based communism, as first laid out by George Kennan and later used as one of the key principles in the Truman Doctrine (LeCain). As this essay will argue, because of this policy the United States made a commitment to fight communism everywhere in the worldRead More Cuban Missile Crisis Essay2219 Words   |  9 Pagesinformed the world that the Cold War was perilously close to turning hot, and the world stood on the brink of nuclear holocaust. Almost twenty years since the end of World War 2, after two decades of mounting tension between the Soviet Communist Empire and the Western allies, the dreaded nuclear showdown was underway. America and the Soviet Union were on a collision course. How had this come to pass? Although the announcement came as a great shock to the public, the Cuban Missile Crisis had not occurredRead MoreAmericans Attitude Change in the 60s2293 Words   |  10 Pagesconsequences of this profound attitudinal shift. Question 3: How did official US policy towards Vietnam change between 1950 and 1975? How did American leaders link events in Vietnam to national security interests? How did the American public react to the war in the sixties and early seventies? Answer: These two questions are so intertwined with one another that combining the two answers is the most efficient way of telling the story. Vietnam was a legacy of Kennedy and a primary reason for the split

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Dystopian Fiction Comparative Essay free essay sample

However when it comes to contrasting the types of controls used, we can say â€Å"Minority Report† uses more technology to limit civilian’s everyday life by inserting machines to do their simple everyday tasks. Where as â€Å"Fahrenheit 451â€Å" uses more government and surveillance like metal hounds to watch over them constantly. In â€Å"Minority Report† the film has technology everywhere. They have technology in almost everything they touch and use. There’s so much technology humans are dumb-ed down over time and they start to rely on machines to do everything for them. Also in â€Å"Minority Report† humans have the free will to do what they like, where in â€Å"Fahrenheit 451â€Å" they were limited in their actions. The two works of dystopian fiction are set in the future, but the movie is set much further into the future, with more advanced technology like cars that drive on walls, and future predicting machines, it also has advertisements everywhere promoting products and promoting the technology used to stop crimes. We will write a custom essay sample on Dystopian Fiction Comparative Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page â€Å"Fahrenheit 451â€Å" has these human made metal machines that watch over human’s actions making sure they don’t â€Å"think† and start wondering if there’s more to life. Any man’s insane who thinks he can fool the government and us. † (33). If the hounds detect anyone reading or thinking they quickly spring into action and seize the offender practically making the civilians prisoners. Both works use dystopian controls to restrain humans. Governmental control reigns over them because they cant break the law. Still they do, so thats where the government employees like pre-cog unit from â€Å"Minority Report† and firemen from â€Å"Fahrenheit 451â€Å" come in. They go in and either prevent the incident from happening by arresting the suspect or by legally burning down the offender’s home along with the books. With so many conflicts drugs are used to help, in one work to relax and in the other to try and commit suicide. The alarms used to warn the firemen, and the hounds are technology, as is the computer that shows a crime waiting to happen, technology is used in both works. Romero 2 The two dystopian works restrain their societies’ freedom by constantly keeping their people ignorant and blinded using controls like constant surveillance and inventing machines to do simple tasks. Minority Report† controls their society by implanting technology that can predict the future and stopping crimes before they happen, where â€Å"Fahrenheit 451â€Å" also keeps an impediment on their society’s gain of knowledge by burning any books and constantly keeping close vigilance on them. Guffey, George R.. Coordinates: Placing S cience Fiction and Fantasy. Carbondale, Ill: Southern Illinois University Press, 1983. Colmer, John. Coleridge to Catch-22. New York: St. Martins Press, 1978. Johnson, Wayne L. Machineries of Joy and Sorrow. Ray Bradbury.

Sunday, April 12, 2020

Challenges Facing Hr Service Providers in Outsourcing Recruitment and Selection Essay Example

Challenges Facing Hr Service Providers in Outsourcing Recruitment and Selection Essay According to the research results, the transaction cost theory and the resource based view of the firm theories applied to this study confirmed that most firms use recruitment and selection outsourcing as a way of saving costs and focusing on core competences as majority of respondents said the reasons why most of their clients outsource their recruitment and selection activities are basically geared towards cost savings and focusing on core competences in order to gain competitive advantage. The findings of the research revealed that clients have a lot of expectations from service providers, as majority of respondents interviewed indicated that they expects their service providers to deliver quality services in terms of quality of personnel, time-tohire, cost of savings etc. However, this study showed that there were numerous challenges that confront service providers in their efforts to fulfill or meet the expectations of clients. We will write a custom essay sample on Challenges Facing Hr Service Providers in Outsourcing Recruitment and Selection specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Challenges Facing Hr Service Providers in Outsourcing Recruitment and Selection specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Challenges Facing Hr Service Providers in Outsourcing Recruitment and Selection specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Some of the challenges as revealed by the study included poor management of contract, poor management of relationship between the parties, inadequate communication between the outsourcing parties, and lack of skilled workforce in the Ghanaian labour market. KEYWORDS: HR Outsourcing, Competitive Advantage, BPO, Clients and Vendors 10 11 1. INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Background of the Study This study seeks to examine the expectations and challenges that HR service providers face in their recruitment and selection outsourcing activities ithin the Ghanaian labour market. The global market today is highly competitive and dynamic and so many multinational companies are seeking opportunities to grow, to remains competitive and to meet changing business conditions. Furthermore, the labour market today is increasingly also becoming competitive; many companies feel the pain of mounting recruitment costs, time to hire cycles, as well as the longer time and effort burden that recruitment activities plac e on hiring managers and HR leaders. Multinational companies around the world are therefore taking advantage of the global market environment and are constantly seeking for opportunities in economies where cheap and readily available skills and expertise can be employed to improve their companies performance. The concept of outsourcing â€Å"non-core† HR activities including recruitment has been adopted by some MNCs as a strategic management tool to assist them to have competitive advantage. As Robert (2003) suggests, HRO as a business model offers human resource management professionals a significant opportunity to focus on activities that really add value to the organizations operations and reduce costs. Recruitment Outsourcing is a business strategy that most multinational companies have adopted as a means of gaining competitive advantage by delegating their recruitment or staffing functions to third party entities. The outsourcing of non-core operations or jobs from internal production (in-house) to external entity that specializes in such activities is thus changing the landscape of businesses across the globe. In most advanced economies, companies are taking advantage of cheap and readily available expertise in developing countries such as India China, South Africa and Ghana to strengthen their competitive advantage through off-shoring of their BPO including HR activities. 12 Franceschini et al, (2003) suggests â€Å"Outsourcing† is defined as the process of transferring the responsibility for a specific business functions or a set of related business functions to an external operator or agent. According to Greer et al (1999), HRO takes place when a company contracts with an HR vendor to perform an HR activity previously performed by the company in-house. HRO can therefore be defined as the delegation or transfer of HR activities that are traditionally performed internally (in-house) to external third party to perform such activities. HRO is a strategic management tool that deals with delegating the operational responsibility for processes or functions that were previously delivered internally to external agents. HRO occurs in both the private and public sectors and consists of different types. These include primary and secondary value chain outsourcing, strategic and tactical outsourcing, selective and full outsourcing, business process outsourcing, off-shoring, near shoring, co-sourcing, in-sourcing and geo-sourcing, and outplacement. There has been much debate over the definition of Recruitment Process Outsourcing (RPO). This is because the industry is still growing; hence a widely accepted definition remains elusive. Some are of the view that any service provider offering services in a number of functional areas should be considered an RPO. For instance, if a service provider conduct candidate searches, performs pre-interviewing screening, set up interviews, and helps to hire the employee may be viewed as an RPO firms. Others contend that the provider should go beyond this to cover the entire candidate lifecycle, including, in some cases, making long hiring decisions. For the purpose of this research study, RPO is defined as â€Å"the contracting out of a company’s recruitment activities which are traditionally performed in-house to an external or third party HR service provider for a consideration which is normally the payment of a contract fee. According to Dell (2004) HRO has been identified as the fastest growing sector within business process outsourcing and all of the major service providers are pushing hard to develop and increase their share of this potentially huge market. The Outsourcing Institute, 1994/95 industry surveys’ report view â€Å"outsourcing† as essential to competitiveness and that significant capacity and quality improvement is achieved through outsourcing. Some analysts predict that HRO will continue to grow by more 13 than 30% so that global expenditure on HRO in the US alone will reach $14billion by 2009. (Yankee Group, 2005). HRO involves more than outsourcing HR services such as retirement benefits and payroll administration. HRO plays a strategic role as organizations are outsourcing HR activities such as payroll, training and development, recruitment, pension benefits and in some cases, the entire HR functions (Adler, 2004; Cook, 1999; Greet et al, 1998) in order to have competitive advantage in the global market environment. Ulrich (1998) argues that there has been serious debate about the contribution of human resource functions to organizational performance. This is due partly to the inability of the human resource functions to demonstrate or show concrete value of its contribution at the strategic level in most organizations. In an effort to address this concern, HRO have been adopted as strategic tool that business executives use as a way of adding value to or enhances organizational performance. Most companies make the decision to outsource for variety of reasons; however cost reduction tends to be one of the most important reasons. Proponents of HRO have argued that many companies that provide outsourcing services are able to do the work at considerably less costs, they don’t have to provide benefits to their employees and have fewer operating cost. According to them, it also enables firms to focus on their core business, gain access to new technology and expertise which otherwise cannot be obtained in-house. Other benefits of HRO include freeing internal resources for other purposes; accelerate reengineering benefits and the sharing of risks. Critics have, however argued that HRO rather leads to increased costs, loss of control and data insecurity, as well as conflict between service providers and outsourcing company, and serious disruptions of the business should the contract be abrogated. Cooke et al (2005) pointed out that although HRO as an organizational strategy has increased substantially over the last decade; this trend has attracted less academic research with regards to how outsourcing decisions are made, the manner in which those decisions are implemented, how the outsourcing effectiveness is measured, and most importantly the expected benefits or outcomes of outsourcing decisions on organizational performance. 14 As a result, empirical evidence on the reasons and outcomes of outsourcing HR activities is both fragmented and inconclusive. There are differences in opinion as to the real benefits of HR outsourcing. For instance, some authors see HRO beneficial in terms of the delivery of services and the enhancement of the strategic position of human resource (Brenner, 1996; Laabs, 1993; Switser, 1997). Others on the other hand, consider HRO as concession and that human resource function no longer has a strategic significance (Baker, 1996; Caldwell, 1996). According to a report carried out by Yankee Group (2005), on HR business process outsourcing, only 48% of key decision makers agreed that HRO had delivered on the promised return on investment they expected. Kakabadse Kakabadse (2003) note that although the outsourcing debate involves, what and how to outsource, the most sensitive issues concerns what to outsource, the impact of outsourcing on organizational relationship, the client/supplier interface, performance management, and client satisfaction/dissatisfaction with outsourcing. They refer to a new outsourcing paradigm in which competitive advantage is achieved through good relationships with business partners and customers. This can only be achieved if service providers are in a position to meet the expectations of their clients. However, many business leaders are beginning to question the extent to which HR service providers meet their expectations in HRO. It is against this background that this study seeks to investigate empirically the expectations and challenges faced by HR service providers in their recruitment and selection outsourcing activities in the Ghanaian labour market in order to gain a deeper insight into the challenges they encounter in their effort to meet these expectations from their clients. 15 1. 2 Research Problem According to Greaver (1999), even in the best of outsourcing situations problems arise. New innovative management strategy can produce unexpected problems, it is therefore important to investigate whether such problems and mediocre outcomes of outsourcing implementation are due to inherent flaws in the concept or whether they are as a result of poor management practices(Lonsdale and Cox,2000). This research therefore originated in the context of growing concern among business managers in recent times about the failure on the part of HR vendors to meet the expectations of outsourcing firms. As earlier on stated according to a survey report carried out by Yankee Group in 2005, on HRO, only 48% of key decision makers agreed that HRO had delivered on the promised returns on investment expected. This survey finding implies that most decision makers are dissatisfied with the expected outcomes from their HRO service providers. It is in this light that this study seeks to uncover the factors behind this state of affairs, thus this study tries to investigate what are the expectations and the challenges that service providers face in their effort to meet their clients demands. Theoretically, not much information exists in the literature from the academia and researchers on recruitment and selection outsourcing in the Ghanaian labour market. Much of the theories on outsourcing HR activities have focused generally on why firms outsource their HR functions, the arguments for and against HRO particularly in the Advanced economies of Western Europe and United States. Hence this study can provide useful information to the academia. Practically too, business leaders have not focused much attention on the strategic risks and the vulnerability that the outsourcing of their HR functions can pose to their business. Most business leaders have been lured into outsourcing their HR services due to the much trumpeted expected benefits that it’s brings to organizational performance without analyzing the implications of such decisions and the challenges it entails. Hence most business leaders lack knowledge about the risks or challenges that HRO involves. It is to address these knowledge gabs that this research study tries to find out or investigate the expectations and challenges HR service providers (vendors) face in recruitment or staffing outsourcing in the 16 Ghanaian labour market. Hence the research problem being posed is: What Expectations and Challenges do HR service providers face in the outsourcing of recruitment and selection activities in Ghana? The significance of this study is first and foremost to serve as learning process or useful lesson for companies that intend to use HRO as a business strategy to accelerate and enhance the development of the organizations. Secondly, it is to serve as a source of information to students and business managers who lack relevant information on the subject matter. Furthermore, it is to contribute to the intellectual debate on the expected outcomes and challenges facing HR service providers in their effort to meet organizational performance especially in this particular subject matter, but which have received very little attention from academia. In addition, it will serve as bases for future studies on the role of key players or actors such as line managers, employees, and senior management and the clients or vendors to the success of HRO. Finally it will provide useful information to guide policy makers to fashion out policies that would engender the growth and development of the HRO business in Ghana. . 3 Research Questions In order to dissect the research problem for easy analysis, the statement of the research problem has been subdivided into two sub-questions as follows: a. What are the expectations of MNCS (Clients) which outsource its recruitment and selection functions to HR service providers in Ghana? b. What challenges confront HR ser vice providers’ in Ghana as they try to meet these expectations? 17 1. 4 Scope of the study This research work is based on a study that attempt to investigate and analyze the challenges and expectations that HR service providers or vendors face in Ghana. First of all, this study is limited in scope to only the Ghanaian labour market and deals with recruitment and selection outsourcing activities and not to other areas of HRO such as retire benefits, pay roll administration, training and development etc. In addition, to theoretically appraise all theories that might explain HR outsourcing decisions is beyond the scope of one research work. In applying theory for this research study, this study limits itself to only two theories i. e. TCT and RBV. This underscores the extent to which a study of this kind involves somehow arbitrary decisions with respect to scope. The selection of only the TCT and RBV that have been applied to this study should not be taken as an inference that other theories may not also prove useful in understanding why firms decide to adopt HR outsourcing as a strategic management tool as other theories also assist to explain the motivation for HR outsourcing decisions. Furthermore, the research is mainly limited in scope to multinational companies and do not include State Owned Enterprises and Government Agencies. Lastly, the research seeks to investigate and analyze the challenges and expectations HR service providers or vendors’ face as they undertake the outsourcing of recruitment and selection activities in the Ghanaian labour market. 1. 5 Structure of the Study The research study has been divided into five sections. The first section, which is an introduction to the research study, covers the background of the study, research problem, research questions, scope of the study, and significance of the study and the structure of the study. Section two takes a look at the literature review of the study which focus on some definitions and trends in HR Outsourcing, types and process of HR outsourcing, Motivation for HRO, TCT and RBV theories and their limitations, relate the HRO decisions to TCT and RVB theories, Outline other arguments for and 18 against HR outsourcing. Section three covers the methods and research strategy used in the study. This section consists of the research design, data collection, data analysis, reliability and validity of the study and an overview of the business environment in Ghana and HR Outsourcing Activities. The section four covers the empirical findings, operational areas of HR service providers in Ghana, the expectations from MNCs from TCT and RBV perspectives as well as the challenges facing service providers from the interviews conducted and the last but not the least section consist of the discussion and conclusion, the managerial implications of the study well as areas for future research. 19 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1 Definitions and HR Outsourcing Trends Outsourcing HRM activities by multinational companies has become popular way of improving basic services as it allows professionals time to play a more strategic role in the organization. In recent times, HRO has attracted a lot of attention by business managers, financial analysts, scholars and the media. Many articles have been written on the subject and a lot of research work carried out on several aspects of HRO such as managerial motivation, human resource management business processes, the relationship between the outsourced company and the vendor or service provider etc. Cook and Gilder (2006) defined HRO as having a third- party service provider or vendor administer on an on-going basis, an HR activity that would normally be performed internally. According to Greer, Youngblood Gray (1999) HRO occurs when a company contracts with an HR vendor to perform an HR activity previously performed by the company. Domberger (1998) argues that â€Å"Outsourcing† is the process whereby activities traditionally carried out internally are contracted out to external providers. Greaver (1998) also stresses that outsourcing is the act of transferring some of the organization’s recurring internal activities and decisions rights to outside providers as set forth in a contract. Turnbull (2002) also points out that HRO is defined as placing responsibility for various elements of the HR functions with a third party. For the purpose of this study HRO is defined as the delegation or transfer of HR- related activities that were normally performed internally (in-house) by an organizations HR department to an external third party. Some analysts suggest that outsourcing certain business process including human resource, procurement, financial and accounting functions to IT consultants and service providers is growing in popularity as companies seek to reduce their operating costs. The HR business process outsourcing service sector grew 8% worldwide last year to $405billion, according to market research firm (Framingham, MA). The sector is expected to grow at 11% per year to reach $682billion in 2008, as companies strive to 20 reduce costs further. For instance Procter Gamble signed a 10-year, $400million contract last year to outsource its HR functions to IBM Business Consulting Services (Chemical Week, September, 24, 2003:14). Dearlove (2003) predicted that business process outsourcing was estimated to yield $50billion in revenue worldwide by the end of 2004 and according to a survey carried out by the Society for Human Resource Management; according to the report currently 58% of companies outsourced at least one of their human resource management activities. (HRM Outsourcing Survey, SHRM, 2004). According to IDC research, spending on HR services is forecast to reach 126billion US dollars worldwide by 2010. The United States which is the largest portion of the market is forecast to reach 68billion US dollars by 2010, growing at a compound annual growth rate of 10. % over the 5year period i. e. 2005-2010 (IDC Research, 2005). The origin of HRO can be traced back to the definite work of Micheal Hammer and Jim Champy in Re-engineering the Corporation. This transcends the business process reengineering (BPR) industry in the early 1990,s. It is not bizarre to find out that HRO is being referred to as off-shori ng, business process outsourcing (BPO) business transaction outsourcing (BTO), near shoring, or on-shoring in management literature. This shows that HRO calls for a more carefully defined definition. (Corporate Research Forum, 2006). According to Schumacher, (2005) Outsourcing first appeared in the IT industry in the 1980,s at the time when companies recognized the benefits of having IT service partners in order to develop complex systems, and enhance the way that a business process or service is managed. The outsourcing industry has taken different dimensions since then, with HRO assuming a dominant role in the business process market. As a result of increased globalization and high pressure to innovate, most business managers are compelled to adopt business strategies and tactics that would enable them have sustained competitive advantage over their rivals. HRO has been adopted as a strategic management tool by which business managers intend to increase their competitiveness in today’s global market environment. Outsourcing HR activities can 21 be a way to quickly gain competitive advantage by reducing costs, improving quality, and concentrating on core business. The outsourcing of human resource services has emerged as a front runner in the ever growing business process outsourcing market. The demand for greater corporate productivity and profitability as well as the potential efficiencies that is likely to be derived from the combination of human resource services across a host of enterprises, have fueled the pace at which HR transactions are contracted. The human resource departments of major US corporations have moved strongly to outsource key functions. According to a 1994 survey of 400 corporations conducted by the Olsten Corporation, 45 percent of firms outsource payroll management, 38 percent outsource tax administration; 53 percent outsource benefits management and 34 percent outsource their workers compensation. In a 1995 survey of 121 businesses, HR Magazine found that 91% outsource one or more of their HR functions, and 16% outsourced more than $1million annually. Functions most outsourced included outplacement, (64%) training delivery (46%) and training development (40%) Information Technology and management information Systems led the way in outsourcing, but recently outsourcing has been extended to other operations. Outsourcing is now one of the major significance in the HRM area. It has come to the front line as the role of HRM in contemporary business environment has gained particular prominence. HRM is the second most likely corporate business function to be outsourced, according to a study by American Management Association (HRM Focus, 1997). Outsourcing activities initially comprises only a small segment of HRM such as payroll functions (Adler, 2003) but has grown gradually to encompass many HR functions. Today, HR outsourcing involves more than outsourcing HR services such as payroll administration. Instead, HR outsourcing also play a strategic role as organizations are outsourcing HR activities such as training and hiring, and in some cases even the entire HR functions. Adler, 2004; Cook, 1999; Greer et al, 1999, Lepak and Snell, 1998). As pointed out by Woodall, Gourlay, Shorts, (2000) evidence from professionals and publications from practitioners have shown that HR has increased considerably over the last decades. For example qualitative and quantitative reports from a range of sources 22 such as People Management and the Cranet Survey (Vernon et al. , 2000; Pricewat erhouse (2002) provide further proof of this growth. 2. 2 Types of Outsourcing There are different types or categories of outsourcing. Some of them are information technology outsourcing, knowledge process outsourcing and business process outsourcing. Others include primary and secondary value chain, selective and full outsourcing, tactical and strategic outsourcing, off-shoring, near shoring, in-sourcing, co-sourcing, geo-sourcing, and outplacement. 2. 2. 1. Primary and secondary value chain outsourcing According to Porter (1985) the value chain is described as a model that outlines the value activities performed or undertaking in a company and their linkages to the company’s competitive position. In the process of converting inputs into outputs companies undertake many different kinds of activities which can either be defined as primary or auxiliary or secondary activities. The primary activities link the supply side (raw materials, inbound logistics and production) to the demand side (out bounded logistics, marketing and sales). The primary activities create and bring value to the customer and they form part of the value chain that deliver the market offering. Supporting (auxiliary) or secondary activities assist and improve the performance of the primary activities. They constitute an infrastructure base that allows the primary activities to be carried out. The margin which is described as the difference between the total value and the total cost of performing all activities in a company is determined by how the activities are carried out, how they interact and how the links among the activities are managed. The management of these activities influences the costs and efficiency of other activities. One way of describing outsourcing in a company is through their primary and secondary value chain activities. For instance, in a company the primary value chain activities such as manufacturing and advertising can be 23 outsourced. In the same vain the secondary value chain activities such as payroll, research and development (RD) and PC support can also be outsourced. It must be noted that HRM activities including recruitment outsourcing, payroll administration, compensation, Procuments falls under the secondary activities in the vain chain. The figure1 illustrates this point. Figure 1: Distinction between Primary and Secondary Chain activities Source: Adapted from M. E Porter (1985) 2. 2. 2. Tactical and Strategic Outsourcing Tactical outsourcing is often used to resolve practical problems such as filling a vacancy. Strategic outsourcing on the other hand involves outsourcing that is linked to a company’s long-term strategy and is expected to have effect on the company for a long time, for instance the outsourcing of RD. Strategic outsourcing has more influence than tactical outsourcing on areas like core competency, future costs, current and future competitive advantages. Strategic outsourcing can be implemented within a year; however it takes a longer time to see its full impact. According to Greaver (1999) the risk with strategic outsourcing are higher, because it involves a greater part of the organization than tactical outsourcing. 24 2. 2. 3. Selective and full outsourcing Another means of distinguishing between types of outsourcing is selective and Full Outsourcing. Outsourcing can be described through a continuum ranging from selective to full outsourcing. In selective outsourcing the company decides to outsource a discrete activity like security or cafeteria rather than doing it in-house. In full outsourcing a whole function or process like IT or HR is outsourced to a vendor. The figure2 in the next page illustrates this. Generally the risk involved in selective outsourcing is lower compared to full outsourcing. Figure 2: Continnum describing Selective and Full Outsourcing Source: Adapted from Hakan Borg (2003). 25 2. 2. 4. Business Process Outsourcing According to Gartner Group (2000) BPO is defined as the delegation of one or more IT intensive business processes to an external provider who in turns owns, administrates, and manages the selected process and processes based upon defined and measurable performance metrics. Business process utsourcing includes outsourcing services related to accounting, Human resource, benefits, payroll administration, finance, sales and marketing, legal services etc. BPO is based on the principles of re-engineering, but also combines them with the ownership and management of processes on behalf of a client by an outside vendor. Business process outsourcing has been applied to many transactional processes that can be easily defined or scaled and transferred to third party owners who have deeper expertise than the outsourced company. The management of the IT systems has been the only major element of outsourcing market until recent times. The figure 4 below gives examples of the traditional outsourcing activities that have change to what now constitute business process outsourcing. Figure 3: Traditional Outsourcing changes to Business Process Outsourcing Source: IDC, Human Resource Service Marketplace, Part 1 US forecast and analysis, 2000-2005. 26 2. 2. 5 Off-shoring, Near-shoring and On-shoring Off-shoring occurs where business operations are subcontracted out to companies in distance countries where taxes, savings and low cost of labour provide necessary incentives for companies to farm –out some of the in-house processes. Near-shoring on the other hand is a situation, where work is done or services are performed by people in neighboring countries instead of the domiciled country. Whiles On-shoring occurs where in-house processes are subcontracted out to domestic companies. 2. 3 HR Outsourcing Process HRO process is a very complex activity which involves details and sensitive decisions affecting the company’s employees and assets. In order to guarantee the successful implementation of the company’s HRO decision, the company’s management is assisted by consultants at various stages of the outsourcing process. The outsourcing institute, based on a survey it conducted in 1995 on 30 outsourcing firms, identified the key phases of the outsourcing process, and the average amount of time required for each phase. According to the report the outsourcing process is broken down into seven distinct steps, which can be grouped into three main categories: The pre-solicitation phase, the solicitation phase and the implementation phase. On the average firms required 14. 6 months to complete outsourcing process, ith the fastest outsourcing action taking six months and the most prolonged requires twenty four months. The pre-solicitation phase involves the assembly of internal project team, the identification and evaluation of candidate functions for outsourcing, and the development of the request for proposal (RFP). These steps need 4. 5 months or about 30 percent of the total process time. According to the survey, the Chief Financial Officer typically spearheads the outsourcing team and exerts top-down l eadership. 27

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Employment and Exit Interview Essay

Employment and Exit Interview Essay Employment and Exit Interview Essay Sarah Edmund Article 1 March 26, 2013 William Stewart/BADM 332 1. Author: Lauren Weber 2. The One Question to Ask in an Exit Interview /The Wall Street Journal Online/ 3 pages 3. How to prevent employee turnover. 4. Some HR employees don’t always ask the right questions to keep their employers from leaving or to prevent turnover with the next person who takes the position. This article gives you some ideas of the right questions to ask. 5. When working in an HR position and conducting and exit interview, there are certain questions you should ask when trying to gain information to better your company. Also you should ensure the employer that all of their information is confidential so they will be more willing to provide information that could help in the future. 6. I would definitely recommend this article to an HR professional. Maybe they aren’t asking the right questions and this could help them out. 7. I do not believe there is any faulty reasoning in this article. 8. Chapter 10 in our textbook is titled, â€Å"Employee Separation and Retention†. In this chapter it discusses why people leave their jobs and things you can do as an HR employee to try to change to turnover rate. Chapter 10 explains the different types of withdrawal; physical, psychological, and behavior change. It also explains what you need to say to employees when you have a feeling they may be thinking about leaving their job. In this chapter you also learn why spending so much money on training and development could be bad and good for the company. 9. Many companies do not consider doing exit reviews. Some professionals see them as a waste of time or feel that it will have no effect for the employee who will be take over the position. If HR employees knew the correct question to ask, they may see the benefit of an exit interview. With the right questions you could prevent future turnover rates of your company. When most HR employees conduct their exit interview their main question is, â€Å"Why are you leaving?† Although this could be useful, most employees already have one foot out the door and aren’t going to answer truthfully for fear of receiving negative reference comments. The first question that should be asked is, â€Å"What made you start looking for another

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Nuclear Power Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Nuclear Power - Essay Example In addition, nuclear power provides steady electricity that significantly helps in the reduction of frequent power outages usually experienced in areas with no nuclear energy. The alternative energy sources such as solar, wind, hydroelectricity, geothermal, wave, and tidal power lacks the capacity to deliver reliable and cheap power the world needs (McLeish, 2007). Hence, the world and humanity can no longer overlook nuclear power due to its potential to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. Besides, accidents that are associated with nuclear energy are relatively low compared to those resulting from fossil fuels and other energy sources. In addition, nuclear power is more consistent and dependable compared to several alternative sources of energy. It is obviously difficult to use water or wind power consistently because quite often there is no enough water or wind (McLeish, 2007). Solar panels can also be too expensive. Lastly, nuclear energy is arguably the alternative of fossil fuel. Continuous use of fossil fuels could result in more global warming and more deaths, particularly when they are eventually used up. In summary, nuclear power is the best energy option for the world because it is safe, consistent, reliable, and reduces carbon emissions into the atmosphere. Hence, it should be a way to go as the next source of energy or an alternative of fossil